Featured Publications


Dec 11, 2020

Skin-interfaced microfluidic system with personalized sweating rate and sweat chloride analytics for sports science applications

Science Advances

Here, we introduce a skin-interfaced wearable microfluidic device and smartphone image processing platform that enable analysis of regional sweating rate and sweat chloride concentration ([Cl−]). Systematic studies (n = 312 athletes) establish significant correlations for regional sweating rate and sweat [Cl−] in a controlled environment and during competitive sports under varying environmental conditions.

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Nov 10, 2020

Soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems with integrated immunoassays, fluorometric sensors, and impedance measurement capabilities


Skin-interfaced, wireless devices for clinical-grade monitoring of physiological parameters are of growing interest for uses that range from healthcare to sports performance. This paper, by researchers at Epicore Biosystems and Northwestern University, introduces a multifunctional skin-mounted microfluidic platform for capture and biomarker analysis of microliter volumes of sweat, a biofluid that can be collected noninvasively, with potential relevance in biophysical sensing.

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Jul 13, 2020

Sweat-activated biocompatible batteries for epidermal electronic and microfluidic systems

Nature Electronics

Epicore Biosystems and Northwestern University report a biocompatible, sweat-activated battery technology that can be embedded within a soft, microfluidic platform. The battery can be used in a detachable electronic module that contains wireless communication and power management systems, and is capable of continuous on-skin recording of physiological signals. To illustrate the practical utility of our approach, we show, using human trials, that the sweat-activated batteries can operate hybrid microfluidic/ microelectronic systems that simultaneously monitor heart rate, sweat chloride and sweat pH.

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Jun 16, 2020

Rapid Capture and Extraction of Sweat for Regional Rate and Cytokine Composition Analysis Using a Wearable Soft Microfluidic System

Journal of Investigative Dermatology

This Letter to the Editor highlights a study employing Epicore Biosystems's Discovery patch, a soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic patch in development, to enable rapid capture and extraction of sweat volumes for the analysis of cytokines.

This initial study highlighted in JID was completed in June 2019 in collaboration with Northwestern University dermatologists to establish baseline data using the Discovery platform and to test its clinical utility. Patches were skin mounted on 10 healthy individuals to collect sweat when individuals were exposed to heat in a controlled environment. Concentrations of three cytokines – IL-1α, IL-1RA, and IL-8 – were assessed twice a day and on consecutive days. The team demonstrated the ability to quantify the concentrations of target inflammation biomarkers in sweat across different skin locations.

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Feb 12, 2020

Can Sweat Shed a Light on Disease Severity in Atopic Dermatitis?

Dermatology Times

Wearable sensors might soon provide dermatologists and patients with unprecedented real-time information about skin health.

One such device in development, Epicore Biosystems’ wearable Discovery patch (Leo Pharma and Epicore Biosystems), aims to assess inflammatory biomarkers found in sweat and interstitial fluid in individuals with atopic dermatitis. The wearable technology will analyze cytokines in sweat to offer real-time objective assessment of the state of disease in adults with the chronic skin condition.

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Human motion component and envelope characterization via wireless wearable sensors

BMC Biomedical Engineering

Here we examine the feasibility of utilizing an advanced wearable sensor, fabricated with stretchable electronics, to characterize linear and angular movements of the human arm for clinical feedback.

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Role of data measurement characteristics in the accurate detection of Parkinson’s disease symptoms using wearable sensors

Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disease, with characteristic motor symptoms such as tremor and bradykinesia. There is a growing interest to continuously monitor these and other symptoms through body-worn sensor technology. However, limited battery life and memory capacity hinder the potential for continuous, long-term monitoring with these devices. Here we build on a previous study to investigate the relationship between data measurement characteristics and accuracy when using wearable sensor data to classify tremor and bradykinesia in patients with PD.

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Apr 1, 2020

Don’t Sweat It: The Quest for Wearable Stress Sensors


A nervous sweat may seem like an inconvenience, but your body could be releasing important signals. Herein, Gao and colleagues develop a wearable sensor with integrated microfluidics, immunoassays, and electronics for tracking cortisol in sweat—as a biomarker of stress.

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Oct 22, 2019

Soft, skin-interfaced microfluidic systems with integrated enzymatic assays for measuring the concentration of ammonia and ethanol in sweat

Lab on a Chip

Here, we present a multi-layered microfluidic device platform to enable integrated enzymatic assays with demonstrations of in situ analysis of the concentrations of ammonia and ethanol in microliter volumes of sweat. Careful characterization of the reaction kinetics and their optimization using statistical techniques yield robust analysis protocols. Human subject studies with sweat initiated by warm-water bathing highlight the operational features of these systems.

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Oct 18, 2019

Augmenting Clinical Outcome Measures of Gait and Balance with a Single Inertial Sensor in Age-Ranged Healthy Adults


Gait and balance impairments are linked with reduced mobility and increased risk of falling. Wearable sensing technologies, such as inertial measurement units (IMUs), may augment clinical assessments by providing continuous, high-resolution data. This study tested and validated the utility of a single IMU to quantify gait and balance features during routine clinical outcome tests, and evaluated changes in sensor-derived measurements with age, sex, height, and weight.

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Soft, Skin-Interfaced Microfluidic Systems with Passive Galvanic Stopwatches for Precise Chronometric Sampling of Sweat

Advanced Science News

Recent developments in skin-integrated soft microfluidic systems address many challenges associated with standard technologies in sweat collection and anal- ysis. However, recording of time-dependent variations in sweat composition requires bulky electronic systems and power sources, thereby constraining form factor, cost, and modes of use. Here, presented are unconventional design concepts, materials, and device operation principles that address this challenge. Flexible galvanic cells embedded within skin-interfaced microfluidics with passive valves serve as sweat-activated “stopwatches” that record temporal information associated with collection of discrete microliter volumes of sweat. The result allows for precise measurements of dynamic sweat com- position fluctuations using in situ or ex situ analytical techniques.

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